EASA 66 Module 11a - Turbine Airplane Aerodynamics Structures, and Systems

The EASA 66 Module 11a is a very detailed and comprehensive CBT courseware. The contents relate to Turbine Airplane Aerodynamics, Structures, and Systems. The student will gain a broad knowledge of all major systems found in a transport category aircraft.
  • 11a.1 Theory of Flight
    • Airplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls Operation and effect of:
      Role of EASA;
      Role of the Member states;
      - roll control: ailerons and spoilers;
      - pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilizers and canards;
      - yaw control, rudder limiters;
      Controls using elevons, ruddervators;
      High lift devices, slats, flaps, flaperons;
      Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes;
      Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
      Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices;
      Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance, control surface bias, aerodynamic balance panels;
      High Speed Flight
      Speed of sound, subsonic flight, transonic flight, supersonic flight, Mach number, critical Mach number, compressibility buffet, shock wave, aerodynamic heating, area rule;
      Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed aircraft;
      Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number.
  • 11a.2 Airframe Structures - General Concepts
    • a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
      Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
      Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
      Zonal and station identification systems;
      Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion,tension, hoop stress fatigue;
      Drains and ventilation provisions;
      System installation provisions;
      Lightning strike protection provision;
      Aircraft bonding.
    • b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage,formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti -corrosive protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments;
      Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding;
      Methods of surface protection, such as chromating,anodising, painting;
      Surface cleaning;
      Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.
  • 11a.3 Airframe Structures - Airplanes
    • Fuselage (ATA 52/53/56)
      Construction and pressurization sealing;
      Wing, stabilizer, pylon and undercarriage attachments;Seat installation and cargo loading system;
      Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms,operation and safety devices;
      Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms;
      Wings (ATA 57)
      Fuel storage;
      Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments;
      Stabilizers (ATA 55)
      Control surface attachment;
      Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55/57)
      Construction and attachment;
      Balancing - mass and aerodynamic;
      Nacelles/Pylons (ATA 54)
      Engine mounts.
  • 11a.4 Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurization (ATA 21)
    • Air supply
      Sources of air supply including engine bleed, APU and ground cart;
      Air conditioning systems;
      Air cycle and vapor cycle machines;
      Distribution systems;
      Flow, temperature and humidity control system;
      Pressurization systems;
      Control and indication including control and safety valves;
      Cabin pressure controllers;
      Safety and warning devices;
      Protection and warning devices.
  • 11a.5 Instruments / Avionic Systems Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
    • Pilot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
      Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director,direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator,turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
      Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
      Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems;
      Other aircraft system indication.
      Avionic Systems
      Fundamentals of system layouts and operation of:
      Auto Flight (ATA 22);
      Communications (ATA 23);
      Navigation Systems (ATA 34).
  • 11a.6 Electrical Power (ATA 24)
    • Batteries Installation and Operation;
      DC power generation;
      AC power generation;
      Emergency power generation;
      Voltage regulation;
      Power distribution;
      Inverters, transformers, rectifiers;
      Circuit protection;
      External/Ground power.
  • 11a.7 Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25)
    • a) Emergency equipment requirements;
      Seats, harnesses and belts
      b) Cabin layout;
      Equipment layout;
      Cabin Furnishing Installation;
      Cabin entertainment equipment;
      Galley installation;
      Cargo handling and retention equipment;
  • 11a.8 Fire Protection (ATA 26)
    • a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
      Fire extinguishing systems;
      b) Cabin layout;
      Equipment layout;
      Cabin Furnishing Installation;
      Cabin entertainment equipment;
      System tests.
      b) Portable fire extinguisher.
  • 11a.9 Flight Controls (ATA 27)
    • Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
      Trim control;
      Active load control;
      High lift devices;
      Lift dump, speed brakes;
      System operation: manual, hydraulic, pneumatic,electrical, fly-by-wire;
      Artificial feel, Yaw damper, Mach trim, rudder limiter,gust locks system;
      Balancing and rigging;
      Stall protection/warning system.
  • 11a.10 Fuel Systems (ATA 28)
    • System layout;
      Fuel tanks;
      Supply systems;
      Dumping, venting and draining;
      Cross-feed and transfer;
      Indications and warnings;
      Refuelling and defuelling;
      Longitudinal balance fuel systems.
  • 11a.11 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29)
    • System layout;
      Hydraulic fluids;
      Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
      Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
      Emergency pressure generation;
      Pressure Control;
      Power distribution;
      Indication and warning systems;
      Interface with other systems.
  • 11a.12 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30)
    • Ice formation, classification and detection;
      Anti-icing systems: electrical, hot air and chemical;
      De-icing systems: electrical, hot air, pneumatic and chemical;
      Rain repellent;
      Probe and drain healing;
      Wiper systems.
  • 11a.13 Landing Gear (ATA 32)
    • Construction, shock absorbing;
      Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
      Indications and warning;
      Wheels, brakes, antiskid and auto-braking;
  • 11a.14 Lights (ATA 33)
    • External: navigation, anti-collision, landing, taxiing, ice;
      Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
  • 11a.15 Oxygen (ATA 35)
    • System layout: cockpit, cabin;
      Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
      Supply regulation;
      Indications and warnings.
  • 11a.16 Pneumatic/Vacuum System (ATA 36)
    • System layout;
      Sources: engine / APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
      Pressure control;
      Indications and warnings;
      Interfaces with other systems.
  • 11a.17 Water/Waste System (ATA 38)
    • Water system layout, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
      Toilet system layout, flushing and servicing;
      Corrosion aspects.
  • 11a.18 On Board Maintenance Systems (ATA 45)
    • Central maintenance computers;
      Data loading system;
      Electronic library system;
      Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).

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