EASA 66 Module 11b - Piston Airplane Aerodynamics Structures, and Systems

EASA 66 Module 11b is similar to EASA 66 Module 11a but covers the topics as they relate to Piston Engine Airplane Aerodynamics, Structures, and Systems. The courseware presents the details of aircraft structure and airframe systems that are applicable to light aircraft.

  • 11b.1 Theory of Flight
    • Airplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls Operation and effect of:
      - roll control: ailerons and spoilers;
      - pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilisers and canards;
      - yaw control, rudder limiters;
      Controls using elevons, ruddervators;
      High lift devices, slats, flaps, flaperons;
      Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers,speed brakes;
      Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges;
      Boundary layer control using, vortex generators,stall wedges or leading edge devices;
      Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance, control surface bias,aerodynamic balance panels;
  • 11b.2 Airframe Structures General Concepts
    • a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength;
      Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary;
      Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts;
      Zonal and station identification systems;
      Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion,tension, hoop stress fatigue;
      Drains and ventilation provisions;
      System installation provisions;
      Lightning strike protection provision;
      Aircraft bonding.
    • b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage,formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads,frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures,reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti -corrosive protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments;
      Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting,bonding;
      Methods of surface protection, such as chromating,anodising, painting;
      Surface cleaning;
      Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.
  • 11b.3 Airframe Structures - Airplanes
    • Fuselage (ATA 52/53/56)
      Construction and pressurization sealing;
      Wing, stabilizer, pylon and undercarriage attachments;Seat installation and cargo loading system;
      Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms,operation and safety devices;
      Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms;
      Wings (ATA 57)
      Construction;
      Fuel storage;
      Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments;
      Stabilizers (ATA 55)
      Construction;
      Control surface attachment;
      Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55/57)
      Construction and attachment;
      Balancing - mass and aerodynamic;
      Nacelles/Pylons (ATA 54)
      Construction;
      Firewalls;
      Engine mounts.
  • 11b.4 Air Conditioning & Cabin Pressurization (ATA 21)
    • Pressurization and Air Conditioning systems;
      Cabin pressure controllers, protection and warning devices.
  • 11b.5 Instruments / Avionic Systems
    • Instrument Systems (ATA 31)
      Pilot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator;
      Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator,turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator;
      Compasses: direct reading, remote reading;
      Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems;
      Other aircraft system indication.
      Avionic Systems
      Fundamentals of system layouts and operation of:
      Auto Flight (ATA 22);
      Communications (ATA 23);
      Navigation Systems (ATA 34).
  • 11b.6 Electrical Power (ATA 24)
    • Batteries Installation and Operation;
      DC power generation;
      Voltage regulation;
      Power distribution;
      Circuit protection;
      Inverters, transformers.
  • 11b.7 Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25)
    • a) Emergency equipment requirements;
      Seats, harnesses and belts
    • b) Cabin layout;
      Equipment layout;
      Cabin Furnishing Installation;
      Cabin entertainment equipment;
      Galley installation;
      Cargo handling and retention equipment;
      Airstairs
  • 11b.8 Fire Protection (ATA 26)
    • a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems;
      Fire extinguishing systems;
      System tests.
    • b) Portable fire extinguisher.
  • 11b.9 Flight Controls (ATA 27)
    • Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, spoiler;
      Trim control;
      High lift devices;
      System operation: manual;
      gust locks
      Balancing and rigging;
      Stall warning system.
      Supply systems;
      Cross-feed and transfer;
      Indications and warnings;
      Refuelling and defuelling;
  • 11a.10 Fuel Systems (ATA 28)
    • System layout;
      Fuel tanks;
      Supply systems;
      Dumping, venting and draining;
      Cross-feed and transfer;
      Indications and warnings;
      Refuelling and defuelling;
      Longitudinal balance fuel systems.
  • 11a.11 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29)
    • System layout;
      Hydraulic fluids;
      Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators;
      Pressure generation: electric, mechanical, pneumatic;
      Emergency pressure generation;
      Pressure Control;
      Power distribution;
      Indication and warning systems;
      Interface with other systems.
  • 11b.12 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30)
    • Ice formation, classification and detection;
      De-icing systems: electrical, hot air, pneumatic and chemical;
      Probe and drain healing;
      Wiper systems.
  • 11b.13 Landing Gear (ATA 32)
    • Construction, shock absorbing;
      Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency;
      Indications and warning;
      Wheels, brakes, antiskid and auto-braking;
      Tires;
      Steering.
  • 11b.14 Lights (ATA 33)
    • External: navigation, anti-collision, landing, taxiing, ice;
      Internal: cabin, cockpit, cargo;
      Emergency.
  • 11b.15 Oxygen (ATA 35)
    • System layout: cockpit, cabin;
      Sources, storage, charging and distribution;
      Supply regulation;
      Indications and warnings.
  • 11b.16 Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36)
    • System layout;
      Sources: engine / APU, compressors, reservoirs, ground supply;
      Pressure control;
      Distribution;
      Indications and warnings;
      Interfaces with other systems.
  • 11a.17 Water/Waste System (ATA 38)
    • Water system layout, supply, distribution, servicing and draining;
      Toilet system layout, flushing and servicing;
      Corrosion aspects.

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