#### EASA 66 Module 2 - Physics

EASA 66 Module 2 explains the basics of Physics using easy to understand language and engaging graphics.The student will come away with a fundamental knowledge of matter, mechanics, optics and other topics that are necessary for understanding aircraft engines and systems.

2.1 Matter
• Nature of matter: the chemical elements, structure of atoms, molecules;
• Chemical compounds;
• States: solid, liquid and gaseous;
• Changes between states.
2.2 Mechanics Statics
• Forces, moments and couples, representation as vectors;
• Centre of gravity;
• Elements of theory of stress, strain and elasticity:tension, compression, shear and torsion;Nature and properties of solid, fluid and gas;Pressure and buoyancy in liquids (barometers).
Kinetics
• Linear movement: uniform motion in a straight line,motion under constant acceleration (motion under gravity);
• Rotational movement: uniform circular motion (centrifugal/centripetal forces);
• Periodic motion: pendulous movement;
• Simple theory of vibration, harmonics and resonance;Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency.
Dynamics
• a) Mass, Force, inertia, work, power, energy (potential,kinetic and total energy), heat, efficiency;
• b) Momentum, conservation of momentum; Impulse;Gyroscopic principles;
• Friction: nature and effects, coefficient of friction (rolling resistance).
Fluid Dynamics
• a) Specific gravity and density;
• b) Viscosity, fluid resistance, effects of streamlining;Effects of compressibility on fluids; Static, dynamic and total pressure: Bernoulli's Theorem, Venturi
2.3 Thermodynamics

First and second law of thermodynamics;Gases: ideal gases laws; specific heat at constant volume and constant volume and pressure,work done by expanding gas; Isothermal, adiabatic expansion and compression, engine cycles, constant volume and constant pressure, refrigerators and heat pumps;Latent heats of fusion and evaporation, thermal energy,heat of combustion.

• a) Temperature: thermometers and temperature scales:Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin;Heat definition.
• Graphical representation; nature and uses of graphs,graphs of equations/functions
• Simple trigonometry; trigonometrically relationships,use of tables and rectangular and polar co-ordinates
• b) Heat capacity, specific heat;Heat transfer convection, radiation and conduction;Volumetric xpansion;
2.4 Optics (Light)

Laws of reflection and refraction: reflection at plane surfaces, reflection by spherical mirrors,refraction, lenses;Fiber optics.

• Nature of light; speed of light;
2.5 Wave Motion and Sound

Wave Motion

Mechanical waves, sinusoidal wave motion, interference phenomena, standing waves;

Sound

• Nature of light; speed of light;
• Speed of sound, production of sound, intensity, pitch and quality, Doppler effect.